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In total, twenty-four 24 tsunamis were recorded in this area for last years; sixteen 16 events of the seismic origin, five 5 events of volcanic origin and three 3 events of unknown source. Most of the tsunamigenic earthquakes 13 occurred in the Caribbean, and three tsunamis were generated during far away earthquakes near the coasts of Portugal and Costa Rica. The estimates of tsunami risk are based on a preliminary analysis of the seismicity of the Caribbean area and the historical data of tsunamis. In particular, we investigate the occurrence of historical extreme runup tsunami data on Guadeloupe, and these data are revised after a survey in Guadeloupe.

Regional development of districts in the Lesser Poland Voivodship. Full Text Available Purpose of the article: Regional development includes qualitative changes in economy e. The research of regional development is important and necessary in order to make appropriate decisions at the regional and local level.

The main purpose of the article is comparative analysis of districts in the Lesser Poland Voivodship in the area of economic, social and ecological development. Scientific aim: The scientific aims of paper are verifying the hypothesis concerning eco-development and forecasting the level of regional development in districts of Lesser Poland Voivodship. Forecasts of the regional development level in districts were calculated with the use of different econometric models as linear model, exponential model, or power model.

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Findings: The findings prove that the Lesser Poland Voivodship is characterised by considerable disproportions in regional development. The most favourable conditions for economic and social development are in the districts with large city agglomerations as well as extensive municipality infrastructure and transport infrastructure. The presented results demonstrate that the majority of districts have not exhibited a constant tendency to changes in the positions in successive ranking lists in terms of the economic, social and ecological development. The positions occupied by most districts are generally stable and have not changed considerably in the examined period.

Conclusions: The research has confirmed the negative. To design and produce a lesser trochanteric reduction fixation system and verify its value and effectiveness. A lesser trochanteric reduction fixation system was designed and produced according to the anatomical features of the lesser trochanteric fractures. Sixty-six patients with intertrochanteric fractures of Evans type III were included between January and July Of 66 patients, 32 were treated with dynamic hip screw DHS assisted with the lesser trochanteric reduction fixation system study group , and 34 cases were treated with DHS only control group.

The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, neck-shaft angle, bone healing time, ratio of successful fixations, and the functional evaluation of the hip joint after operation were compared between 2 groups. The study group had shorter operation time [ There was no significant difference in neck-shaft angle between study group [ The wounds healed by first intention in both groups.

The 30 and 31 patients were followed up 12 to 24 months mean, 15 months in the study group, and 13 to 25 months mean, 16 months in the control group, respectively. All fractures healed well in 2 groups. The study group had significantly shorter healing time [ 8. At 12 months after operation, coxa vara happened in 2 cases of the study group with a successful fixation ratio of Valuation issues in lesser developed countries: Investment opportunities.

Privatization has become the buzzword of the early s, as all over the world governments are selling off their assets. Monopolistic utilities such as gas, water and waste disposal - but particularly electric - are prime assets for sale because their cash flows and competitive environment are reasonably predictable. Utility privatization in lesser developed countries LDC is giving rise to many new investment opportunities where predictions of high growth rates lead to anticipation of lucrative returns.

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Potential investors, however, should fully exercise the concept of caveat emptor: let the buyer beware. Coupled with these lucrative returns are risks arising from less stable political and economic conditions. This article explores the central issues involved in valuing privatization investment opportunities in LDCs and performing requisite due diligence reviews. Muon tomography: Plans for observations in the Lesser Antilles.

The application of muon tomography to monitor and image the internal structure of volcanoes in the Lesser Antilles is discussed. The technological criteria for the design of portable muon telescopes are presented in detail for both their mechanical and electronic aspects. The detector matrices are constructed with scintillator strips, and their detection characteristics are discussed. The tomography inversion is presented, and its distinctive characteristics are briefly discussed.

Details are given on the implementation of muon tomography experiments on La Soufriere in Guadeloupe. The difference in cultural curriculum: for a lesser Physical Education. Full Text Available The current time is contingent, plural, decentralized, free of old identities and permeated by the noise of voices that have never been heard. Inserted in such context, the school tries to overcome traces of the past and face the struggles of the present. Regarding physical education, the cultural curriculum seems to contribute with the new era mentality by questioning the hegemony of body practices and meanings of the privileged groups to promote the pedagogy of difference.

This study analyzed the most important works on this proposal, identifying teaching principles and procedures that characterize it and submitted them to the confrontation with the notion of pure difference by Gilles Deleuze. The Caribbean Sea countries are often affected by various marine natural hazards: hurricanes and cyclones, tsunamis and flooding. The historical data of marine natural hazards for the Lesser Antilles and specially, for Guadeloupe are presented briefly.

Numerical simulation of several historical tsunamis in the Caribbean Sea Lisbon trans-Atlantic tsunami, Virgin Island earthquake tsunami, Montserrat volcano tsunami are performed within the framework of the nonlinear-shallow theory. Numerical results demonstrate the importance of the real bathymetry variability with respect to the direction of propagation of tsunami wave and its characteristics.

The prognostic tsunami wave height distribution along the Caribbean Coast is computed using various forms of seismic and hydrodynamics sources. These results are used to estimate the far-field potential for tsunami hazards at coastal locations in the Caribbean Sea. The nonlinear shallow-water theory is also applied to model storm surges induced by tropical cyclones, in particular, cyclones "Lilli" in and "Dean" in Obtained results are compared with observed data.

The numerical models have been tested against known analytical solutions of the nonlinear shallow-water wave equations. Obtained results are described in details in []. References [1] N. Zahibo and E. Zahibo, E. Pelinovsky, A. Yalciner, A. Kurkin, A. Koselkov and A. Zaitsev, Oceanologica Acta, 26, Kurkin and A. Kozelkov, Science Tsunami Hazards.

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Pelinovsky, N. Zahibo, P. Dunkley, M. Edmonds, R. Herd, T. Talipova, A. Kozelkov and I. Nikolkina, Science of Tsunami Hazards, 22, 44 Pelinovsky, E. Okal, A. Yalciner, C. Kharif, T. Talipova and A. Kozelkov, Science of Tsunami Hazards, 23, 25 Pelinovsky, T. Rabinovich, A. Kurkin and I. The lesser evil? Initiating a benzodiazepine prescription in general practice. Objective Chronic benzodiazepine BZD use is widespread and linked with adverse effects. There is consensus concerning the importance of initiating BZD as a crucial moment.

Nevertheless specific research in this field is lacking. Design Qualitative study with five focus groups analysed using a systematic content analysis. Setting Regions of Ghent and Brussels in Belgium. Subjects A total of 35 general practitioners. At the same time, GPs feel overwhelmed by the psychosocial problems of their patients. They show empathy by prescribing. They feel in certain situations there are no other solutions and they experience BZDs as the lesser evil. They admit to resorting to BZDs because of time restraint and lack of alternatives. GPs do not perceive the addictive nature of BZD consumption as a problem with first-time users.

Conclusion The main concern of GPs is to help the patient. GPs should be aware of the addictive nature of BZD even in low doses and a non-pharmacological approach should be seen as the best first approach. The island of Dominica, located in the central part of the Lesser Antilles island arc has eight potentially active volcanoes. The ignimbrite sequences form four flow fans that reached both the east and west coasts of the island.

One of these flow fans, the Grande Savane, on the west coast of the island, also extends off-shore for a distance of at least 14 km as a distinctive submarine fan. Stratigraphical studies of the on- shore deposits that make up this fan indicate an older sequence of block and ash flow deposits, within which occurs a distinctive vulcanian fall deposit.

These are overlain, with no evidence of an intervening paleosol, by a sequence of ignimbrites containing welded horizons ranging in thickness from around 4 m to 16m. The lack of fall deposits beneath the ignimbrites suggest they may have been formed by instantaneous continuous collapse of the eruption column. This whole succession is overlain by a series of planar and dune bedded pumiceous surge deposits with interbedded pumiceous lapilli fall and ash fall deposits, that extend laterally outside of the main area of ignimbrite deposition.

Beds within this upper sequence often contain accretionary lapilli and gas cavities suggesting magma-water interaction. The youngest deposits from Morne Diablotins appear to be valley- fill deposits of both ignimbrite and block and ash flow. A comparison of the of the Grande Savane pyroclastic sequence with the Pointe Ronde west coast and Londonderry east coast pyroclastic flow fans will provide information on the eruptive history of this major Plinian episode. Predictive MRI correlates of lesser metatarsophalangeal joint plantar plate tear.

Umans, Rachel L. To identify correlated signs on non-enhanced MRI that might improve diagnostic detection of plantar plate PP tear. All were anonymized, randomized, and reviewed; 20 were duplicated to assess consistency. One musculoskeletal radiologist evaluated qualitative variables. A trained non-physician performed measurements. Consistency and concordance were assessed.

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Pearson's Chi-square test was used to test the correlation between qualitative findings and PP tear status. Pericapsular soft tissue thickening most strongly correlated with PP tear. For cases in which it might be difficult to distinguish pericapsular fibrosis from neuroma, sequential assessment of 2nd toe enthesitis, flexor tendon subluxation and splaying of the 2nd and 3rd toe is most helpful for optimizing accurate diagnosis of PP tear.

Boron isotope ratios of surface waters in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles. Louvat, Pascale, E-mail: louvat ipgp. The soil-vegetation B cycle could also be a cause for such a fractionation. The variety of the thermal spring chemical composition renders the understanding of B behavior in Guadeloupe hydrothermal system quite difficult. Complementary geochemical tracers would be helpful.

Main copper-porphyry systems of the Lesser Caucasus. Two belts of porphyry-copper systems were identified the Late Jurassic Early Cretaceous Somkheto-Karabakh S-K island-arc belt within the same name terrain of the southern termination of the Eurasian Plate stretching for km the tonalitic model and the Early Miocene Tsaghkounk-Zanghezour Ts-Z post-collision belt Tz-Z within the same name terrain of the northern margin of the Gondwana, stretching over km the monzonite-granodiorite model.

The formation of the S-K and Ts-Z belts had proceeded in pulses and spanned intervals of 12 million years and 24 million years, respectively. The Rb-Sr isochrones and TIMS U-Pb estimations of the age of zircons from the Meghri pluton 1, km 2 , the largest one in the Lesser Caucasus, it appeared possible to establish the three stages of its formation: the Late Eocene, Early Oligocene, and Early Miocene, each accompanied by development of deposits having similar ages.

The PC deposits of the S-K and Ts-Z belts have distinct differences of age, geodynamic regime of formation, specificity of mineral composition, sources of water and sulfur of hydrothermal solutions, and formation models. The single, discrete Armenian-Iranian belt of PC deposits was identified; it has a Late Eocene-Middle Miocene age and a length of about 2, km, being related with intrusive complexes of the monzonite-granite-granodiorite series, the activity of which had been manifesting itself over 32 million years.

Observations on the activity patterns of the lesser yellow house bat Cape Town. Department of Zoology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria,. Received 10 June ; accepted 23 July The activity pattems of the lesser yellow Metatarsophalangeal joint stability: A systematic review on the plantar plate of the lesser toes. Maas, N. Nico M. Bramer Wichor ; G.

Kleinrensink Gert Jan. This systematic review examines the anatomy of the plantar plate of the lesser toes, and the relation between the integrity. Hepatic element concentrations of lesser scaup aythya affinis during spring migration in the upper midwest. High concentrations of some hepatic elements might be contributing to the decline of the continental lesser scaup Aythya affinis population.

We evaluated hepatic element concentrations of male and female lesser scaup collected from the upper Midwest Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota during the and spring migrations. We measured concentrations of 24 elements in livers of lesser scaup. Our observed hepatic concentration of Se was similar to that reported in lesser scaup collected from the mid-continental United States but less than Se concentrations reported from the Great Lakes region. We found that the liver cadmium Cd concentration for males was significantly higher than that for females. Gender differences in hepatic Cd concentrations have not been previously reported for lesser scaup, but Cd is known to have negative impacts on male reproduction.

Our results indicate that lesser scaup migrating through the upper Midwest in spring have elevated Se levels and that males carry a significantly greater Cd burden than females. Moreover, elemental concentrations might be high enough to affect reproduction in both male and female lesser scaup, but controlled laboratory studies are needed to adequately assess the effects of Se and Cd on lesser scaup reproduction.

Why do lesser toes deviate laterally in hallux valgus? A radiographic study. Hallux valgus foot with laterally deviated lesser toes is a complex condition to treat. Ignoring the laterally deviated lesser toes in hallux valgus might result in unsatisfactory foot shape.

Without lateral support of the lesser toes, it might increase the risk of recurrence of hallux valgus. We sought to identify associated radiographic findings in patients where lesser toes follow the great toe in hallux valgus and deviate laterally. The weight-bearing, anteroposterior foot radiographs of 24 female hallux valgus feet with laterally deviated lesser toes group L , 34 female hallux valgus feet with normal lesser toes group H , and 43 normal female feet group N were selected for the study. A 2-dimensional coordinated system was used to analyze the shapes and angles of these feet by converting each dot made on the radiographs onto X and Y coordinates.

Diagrams of the feet in each group were drawn for comparison. The hallux valgus angle, lateral deviation angle of the second toe, intermetatarsal angles, toe length, metatarsal length, and metatarsus adductus were calculated according to the coordinates of the corresponding points. The mapping showed the bases of the second, third, and fourth toe in group L shifted laterally away from their corresponding metatarsal head P hallux valgus angles P hallux valgus angle, more adducted first metatarsal, and divergent lateral splaying of the lesser metatarsals were associated with lateral deviation of the lesser toes in hallux valgus.

Level III, comparative study. Active convergence between the Lesser and Greater Caucasus in Georgia: Constraints on the tectonic evolution of the Lesser -Greater Caucasus continental collision. Sokhadze, G. We present and interpret newly determined site motions derived from GPS observations made from through in the Republic of Georgia, which constrain the rate and locus of active shortening in the Lesser -Greater Caucasus continental collision zone.

Convergence across the Rioni Basin Profile occurs along the southern margin of the Greater Caucasus, near the surface trace of the north-dipping Main Caucasus Thrust Fault MCTF system, and is consistent with strain accumulation on the fault that generated the MW6. In contrast, convergence along the Tbilisi Profile occurs near Tbilisi and the northern boundary of the Lesser Caucasus near the south-dipping Lesser Caucasus Thrust Fault , approximately km south of the MCTF, which is inactive within the resolution of geodetic observations Lesser -Greater Caucasus, and closing of the intervening Kura Basin, which is most advanced along this segment of the collision zone.

The identification of active shortening near Tbilisi requires a reevaluation of seismic hazards in this area. Full Text Available Avulsion of the lesser trochanter is an uncommon injury. In children and adolescents it usually occurs as a sports injury via traumatic avulsion of the psoas major tendon. In adults, isolated fractures of the lesser trochanter are most commonly pathological due to metastatic tumor invasion of the proximal femur.

This case report documents how a year-old boy, who presented with an avulsion of the lesser trochanter of the proximal femur following a seemingly atraumatic shot put session at a track and field event, was diagnosed and successfully treated with a conservative approach. CT of the lesser pelvis - normal and abnormal anatomy, indications, results.

Particular attention is paid to the relevance of the computer tomographic information for treatment. So far, all available diet studies on the lesser kestrel were conducted in its European range or in partial African breeding and nonbreeding range. In particular, little is known about the feeding behavior of this small falcon in Asian ranges. Thus, this study can be considered as the first to examine the diet composition of the central Asian breeding populations of lesser kestrels.

This study aims to provide some information about the diet composition of this species among Asian populations through biological and ecological investigations. A total of 1, prey items were identified in the pellets collected. After a measure of their weight g and length and width mm, we carefully examined each pellet and separated all prey remains using tweezers. Keywords: diet composition, insects, pellets, reptiles, small mammals.

In addition, we announce the reopening of the public comment period on the December 11, , proposed rule to list the lesser prairie-chicken as a Impacts of mesquite distribution on seasonal space use of lesser prairie-chickens. Boggie, Matthew A. Loss of native grasslands by anthropogenic disturbances has reduced availability and connectivity of habitat for many grassland species. A primary threat to contiguous grasslands is the encroachment of woody vegetation, which is spurred by disturbances that take on many forms from energy development, fire suppression, and grazing.

To determine the magnitude of impacts of distribution of mesquite and how lesser prairie-chickens respond to mesquite presence on the landscape in southeastern New Mexico, we evaluated seasonal space use of lesser prairie-chickens in the breeding and nonbreeding seasons. We derived several remotely sensed spatial metrics to characterize the distribution of mesquite.

We then used these data to create population-level resource utilization functions and predict intensity of use of lesser prairie-chickens across our study area. Home ranges were smaller in the breeding season compared with the nonbreeding season; however, habitat use was similar across seasons.

During both seasons, lesser prairie-chickens used areas closer to leks and largely avoided areas with mesquite. Relative to the breeding season, during the nonbreeding season habitat use suggested a marginal increase in mesquite within areas of low intensity of use, yet aversion to mesquite was strong in areas of medium to high intensity of use. To our knowledge, our study is the first to demonstrate a negative behavioral response by lesser prairie-chickens to woody encroachment in native grasslands. To mitigate one of the possible limiting factors for lesser prairie-chickens, we suggest future conservation.

Radiologic measurement of lesser trochanter and its clinical significance in Chinese. Femoral fracture is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly persons. Surgery, the main choice of treatment of femoral fracture, may result in some complications severely affecting patients' daily activities due to femoral malalignment.

The lesser trochanter is an important anatomical structure of the femur which could be used as an anatomical landmark during and after operation to evaluate femoral alignment. To predict femoral rotational malalignment during surgery, the relationship between the height and width of the lesser trochanter and femoral rotation at different angles was investigated. Fifty healthy adult volunteers 25 men and 25 women were enrolled in this study and a total of radiographs of proximal femurs were taken in the following positions: neutral position, 5 , 10 , 15 , and 20 internal rotation, and 5 , 10 , 15 , and 20 external rotation, respectively.

The cranio-caudal and transverse diameters of the lesser trochanter were obtained on a PACS Workstation. The height and width of the lesser trochanter increased with external rotation and decreased with internal rotation and the values showed statistical significance between different positions or different genders. Between 20 of internal rotation to 20 of external rotation, the mean height increased from 0. The corresponding mean values for width were from 2. The height and width of the lesser trochanter were both highly correlated to the position of femur and the linear relationship was established approximately.

The morphological alteration of lesser trochanter also changed obviously when the femurs rotated. The height and width of the lesser trochanter is linearly related to femoral rotation and could be used as a reference for prevention of femoral malalignment during surgery.

Lesser prairie-chicken avoidance of trees in a grassland landscape. Lautenbach, Joseph M. Grasslands are among the most imperiled ecosystems in North America. Reasons that grasslands are threatened include conversion to row-crop agriculture, fragmentation, and changes in fire regimes. The reduction of fire processes in remaining prairies has resulted in tree encroachment and establishment in grasslands, further reducing grassland quantity and quality. Grassland birds have been experiencing precipitous population declines in recent decades, commensurate with landscape changes to grasslands.

The lesser prairie-chicken Tympanuchus pallidicinctus Ridgway is a declining species of prairie grouse of conservation concern. We used second- and third-order habitat selection metrics to test if female lesser prairie-chickens avoid grasslands where trees were present. Our results indicated that female lesser prairie-chickens selected habitats avoiding the nearest trees by m on average, nearly twice as far as would be expected at random.

Probability of use indicated that lesser prairie-chickens were 19 times more likely to use habitats m from the nearest tree when compared with using habitats 0 m from the nearest tree. Avoidance of trees could be due to perceived increased predation risk, reduced habitat quality, or a combination of these potentially confounding factors. Preventing further establishment and expansion of trees in landscapes occupied by lesser prairie-chickens could contribute to the continued persistence of the species.

Additionally, restoring grasslands through tree removal may facilitate conservation efforts for grassland species such as the lesser prairie-chicken by improving habitat quality and promoting expansion of occupied range. The value of CT in localizing primary and stomach-originated masses in the lesser sac. Objective: To investigate the normal CT manifestation of the vascular arch of the gastric lesser curvature, and to further probe the value of CT in the localization diagnosis of the primary and stomach-originated masses in the lesser sac.

Methods: Contrast-enhanced CT scanning was performed in 51 normal individuals. Emphasis of image observation was focused on the CT manifestations of vascular arch of the gastric lesser curvature and the relation between the vascular arch and the gastric wall. Also contrast- enhanced CT scan was performed for seventeen cases of primary and stomach-originated masses in the lesser sac subsequently proved by surgery and pathology.

Image analysis was focused on the relation between the mass and the vascular arch and its branches of the gastric lesser curvature, the shape of the mass, and the relation between the mass and the gastric wall. Results: The vascular arch of the gastric lesser curvature was clearly visualized in the fifty normal individuals. The tributaries of the vascular arch near the cardiac part, gastric corpus, and pyloric part were revealed in 42, 10 and 7 cases respectively.

The vascular arch was in close contact with the gastric wall in 38 cases. Among the 17 patients, 13 cases demonstrated the obliteration of the transparent fat plane between the mass and the gastric wall. In 6 patients with stomach- originated masses, 5 patients showed the stretching of vascular arch tributaries adjacent to the masses, and no vascular arch and its tributaries could be not visualized between the masses and the stomach.

In 11 patients with primary masses in the lesser sac, vascular arch were showed between the masses and the stomach in 10 cases, and no stretching of vascular arch tributaries adjacent to the masses could be showed. Conclusions: CT scan can clearly depict the normal vascular arch and its branches of the gastric lesser curvature. Based on the relation between the vascular arch and the gastric wall, the presence of fat. Assessment of lesser prairie-chicken use of wildlife water guzzlers.

Man-made water sources have been used as a management tool for wildlife, especially in arid regions, but the value of these water sources for wildlife populations is not well understood. In particular, the value of water as a conservation tool for Lesser Prairie-Chickens Tympanuchus pallidicinctus is unknown.

However, this is a relevant issue due to a heightened conservation concern for the species and its occupancy of an arid landscape anticipated to experience warmer, drier springs and winters. We assessed if Lesser Prairie-Chickens would use commercially available wildlife water guzzlers and if there was any apparent selection between two design types.

We confirmed that Lesser Prairie-Chickens would use bird friendly designed wildlife water guzzlers. Use was primarily during the lekking-nesting period March—May and the brood rearing period June—July and primarily by males. Although both designs were used, we found significantly greater use of a design that had a wider water trough and ramp built into the tank cover compared to a design that had a longer, narrower trough extending from the tank. Although we were unable to assess the physiological need of surface water by Lesser Prairie-Chickens, we were able to verify that they will use wildlife water guzzlers to access surface water.

If it is found surface water is beneficial for Lesser Prairie-Chickens, game bird friendly designed guzzlers may be a useful conservation tool for the species. Conservation Reserve Program mitigates grassland loss in the lesser prairie-chicken range of Kansas.

However, quantification of changes in land cover in the distribution of the lesser prairie-chicken is lacking. Department of Agriculture Program converting cropland to permanent cover; CRP to mitigate grassland loss. Digital land cover maps were generated on a decadal time step through spectral classification of LANDSAT images and visual analysis of aerial photographs s and s. Landscape composition and configuration were assessed using FRAGSTATS to compute a variety of landscape metrics measuring changes in the amount of grassland present as well as changes in the size and configuration of grassland patches.

With the exception of a single regional portion of the range, nearly all of the grassland converted to cropland in the lesser prairie-chicken range of Kansas occurred prior to the s. Prior to the implementation of CRP, the amount of grassland decreased 3. Since , the overall amount of grassland in the lesser prairie-chicken range has increased Since grassland in Kansas became more connected and less fragmented in response to the CRP.

While the CRP has been successful in. Much of this decline has been attributed to the loss and fragmentation of native grasslands throughout the lesser prairie-chicken range. While the CRP has been successful. First complete genome sequence of parainfluenza virus 5 isolated from lesser panda. Parainfluenza virus 5 PIV5 is widespread in mammals and humans. Up to now, there is little information about PIV5 infection in lesser pandas.

The full-length genome of ZJQ was found to be 15, nucleotides and consisted of seven non-overlapping genes encoding eight proteins i. The findings of this study confirm the presence of PIV5 in lesser panda and indicate this mammal as a possible natural reservoir. Furthermore they highlight the urgent need to strengthen viral surveillance and control of PIV5 in zoo animals. The effect of listing the lesser prairie chicken as a threatened species on rural property values.

This paper estimates the effect of Endangered Species Act protections for the lesser prairie chicken Tympanuchus pallidicinctus on rural property values in Oklahoma. The political and legal controversy surrounding the listing of imperiled species raises questions about the development restrictions and opportunity costs the Endangered Species Act imposes on private landowners. Examining parcel-level sales data before and after the listing of the endemic lesser prairie chicken, we employ difference-in-differences DD regression to measure the welfare costs of these restrictions.

While our basic DD regression provides evidence the listing was associated with a drop in property values, this finding does not hold up in models that control for latent county and year effects. The lack of a significant price effect is confirmed by several robustness checks. Thus, the local economic costs of listing the lesser prairie chicken under the Endangered Species Act appear to have been small. Landscape composition creates a threshold influencing Lesser Prairie-Chicken population resilience to extreme drought.

Habitat loss and degradation compound the effects of climate change on wildlife, yet responses to climate and land cover change are often quantified independently. The interaction between climate and land cover change could be intensified in the Great Plains region where grasslands are being converted to row-crop agriculture concurrent with increased frequency of extreme drought events. We quantified the combined effects of land cover and climate change on a species of conservation concern in the Great Plains, the Lesser Prairie-Chicken Tympanuchus pallidicinctus.

We combined extreme drought events and land cover change with lek count surveys in a Bayesian hierarchical model to quantify changes in abundance of male Lesser Prairie-Chickens from to in Kansas, the core of their species range. Our estimates of abundance indicate a gradually decreasing population through corresponding to drought events and reduced grassland areas.

Decreases in Lesser Prairie-Chicken abundance were greatest in areas with increasing row-crop to grassland land cover ratio during extreme drought events, and decreased grassland reduces the resilience of Lesser Prairie-Chicken populations to extreme drought events. A threshold exists for Lesser Prairie-Chickens in response to the gradient of cropland:grassland land cover.

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Preservation of intact grasslands and continued implementation of initiatives to revert cropland to grassland should increase Lesser Prairie-Chicken resilience to extreme drought events due to climate change. Abnormal development of the lesser wing of the sphenoid with microphthalmos and microcephaly. We report two patients with abnormal development of the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone, globe, optic nerve and cerebral hemisphere without stigmata of neurofibromatosis type 1.

The lesser wing of the sphenoid bone was abnormally formed and was not ossified ipsilateral to the dysmorphic eye and underdeveloped cerebral hemisphere. Maldevelopment of the sphenoid wing may interfere with the normal closure of the optic vesicle and normal growth of encephalic structures, possibly by disturbing developmental tissue interactions. These patients may exhibit a type of restricted primary sphenoid dysplasia, while the sphenoid dysplasia of neurofibromatosis type 1 may be secondary to orbital or ocular neurofibromas and other factors associated with that disease.

Lesser sac hematoma as a sign of rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma in the caudate lobe. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the CT findings of rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma HCC in the caudate lobe of the liver. The CT scans of five cases of rupture of HCC in the caudate lobe of the liver were retrospectively reviewed and correlated with clinical records. All cases showed exophytic tumors in the caudate lobe of the liver and high-attenuation hematomas in the lesser sac on CT. A lesser sac hematoma may be a sentinel clot sign of rupture of HCC in the caudate lobe.

Full Text Available Four female lesser mouse deer Tragulus javanicus were used in this study to observe their feed consumption and digestibility given alternative diets in captive. Jacquemin, C. Radiology Dept. Long distance commutes by lesser long-nosed bats Leptonycteris yerbabuenae to visit residential hummingbird feeders.

Each spring, thousands of female lesser long-nosed bats Leptonycteris yerbabuenae migrate from southern Mexico to northern Sonora and southern Arizona to have their young and take advantage of seasonably available forage resources, including nectar, pollen, and fruit of columnar cacti. Once the pups are volant, the population begins to disperse across the grasslands Those variations could be categorized based on their shape, size, colour, and flavour of their tuber. The genus of Dioscorea spp. At the present, the utilization of yam tubers is seen to be limited.

The treatment on this study was performed by the number of substitution of lesser yam tubers and the fermentation time. The Lesser Antillean Iguana on St. Eustatius: status update and review of limiting factors. The endangered Lesser Antillean Iguana, Iguana delicatissima, is an emblematic species for the island of St. Eustatius and in Caribbean Netherlands it is only found on St. In this study we conducted an extensive population survey for the iguana and compared densities in different areas to. The consequences of economic integration for Europe's lesser -used languages are examined.

Applying theoretical predictions to a set of 12 minority languages, this paper shows that 5 will likely be in a more favorable position, 4 may lose as a result of economic integration, and no clear effect can be predicted for the remaining 3. Documenting sociolinguistic variation in lesser -studied languages presents methodological challenges, but also offers important research opportunities. In this paper we examine three key methodological challenges commonly faced by researchers who are outsiders to the community.

We then present practical solutions for successful variationist…. Theory of mind in children with ' lesser variants' of autism : a longitudinal study. Infection by the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis represents the most common cause of infectious eosinophilic meningitis in humans, causing central nervous system CNS angiostrongyliasis.

The primary objectives of this study were to depict the first case of CNS angiostrongyliasis in the Lesser Antilles and investigate the environmental presence of A. The environmental investigation was performed by collecting Achatina fulica molluscs from different parts of Guadeloupe and testing the occurrence of A.

CSF from the suspected case of angiostrongyliasis was positive for A. Among 34 collected snails for environmental investigation, In conclusion, we report the first laboratory-confirmed case of CNS-angiostrongyliasis in the Lesser Antilles. We identified the presence and high prevalence of A.

These results highlight the need to increase awareness of this disease and implement public health programs in the region to prevent human cases of angiostrongyliasis and improve management of eosinophilic meningitis patients. The Ameiva of the Lesser Antilles present an interesting case of isolated populations of related animals on a chain of islands that differ in size and proximity among themselves but form a geographic group.

The situation is made still more interesting by the fact that at times in the Pleistocene the. Oxygen deficiency impacts on burying habitats for lesser sandeel, Ammodytes tobianus, in the inner Danish waters. Starting in s, the inner Danish waters have yearly been exposed to seasonal oxygen deficiency hypoxia. Through spatial—temporal interpolation of monitoring data — , we investigated oxygen deficiency impacts on suitable burying habitats for lesser sandeel Ammodytes tobianus Radial variation in fiber length of some lesser used wood species in Sep 20, Variations in fibre length of ten lesser used wood species were investigated.

The mean fibre length In addition some notes are given on the distribution of A. The mean fibre length varied from 1. Four patterns of within tree radial variations in fibre length were observed in the studied species. In pattern one, fibre length increased from the pith to the The Caucasus, including the mountains of Greater and Lesser Caucasus, is formed by the continental collision between Arabia and Eurasia.

The crustal thickness for this region was mostly constrained by joint analysis of receiver functions and surface waves. Although the thickest value of 52 km was reported under the Lesser Caucasus, the resolution of earlier studies were often limited by sparse array. Large gradient across Moho also makes the definition of Moho difficult. To further investigate the detail structure around the Lesser Caucasus, we constructed a new seismic network in Georgia and Armenia.

We also include other broadband stations to enhance the coverage. The average interval in the Lesser Caucasus is roughly 30 km, much denser than any previous experiments. Our preliminary results show that Moho depth increases from 40 km under the northeastern Turkey to 50 km beneath northern Georgia, no station with Moho deeper than 50 km under the Lesser Caucasus. In the future, we plan to join locally measured dispersion curves to invert the velocity model without velocity-depth trade-off. We expect to resolve the velocity variations of the crust beneath this region in small scale that may be tied to the continental collision and surface volcanism.

Keywords: Caucasus, receiver. Lesser prairie-chicken fence collision risk across its northern distribution. Robinson, Samantha G. Livestock fences have been hypothesized to significantly contribute to mortality of lesser prairie-chickens Tympanuchus pallidicinctus ; however, quantification of mortality due to fence collisions is lacking across their current distribution. Variation in fence density, landscape composition and configuration, and land use could influence collision risk of lesser prairie-chickens.

Additionally, we quantified locations, propensity, and frequency of fences crossed by lesser prairie-chickens. We tested for landscape and vegetative characteristics that influenced fence-cross propensity and frequency of global positioning system GPS -marked birds. A minimum of 12, fence crossings occurred by GPS-marked lesser prairie-chickens. We found evidence for a single suspected collision based on carcass evidence for mortalities of transmittered birds.

Our data suggested minimal biological significance and indicated that propensity and frequency of fence crossings were random processes. Lesser prairie-chickens do not appear to be experiencing significant mortality risk due to fence collisions in Kansas and Colorado. Focusing resources on other limiting factors i. The predicted influence of climate change on lesser prairie-chicken reproductive parameters. Grisham, Blake A. The Southern High Plains is anticipated to experience significant changes in temperature and precipitation due to climate change.

These changes may influence the lesser prairie-chicken Tympanuchus pallidicinctus in positive or negative ways. We assessed the potential changes in clutch size, incubation start date, and nest survival for lesser prairie-chickens for the years and based on modeled predictions of climate change and reproductive data for lesser prairie-chickens from on the Southern High Plains of Texas and New Mexico.

We developed 9 a priori models to assess the relationship between reproductive parameters and biologically relevant weather conditions. We selected weather variable s with the most model support and then obtained future predicted values from climatewizard. We conducted 1, simulations using each reproductive parameter's linear equation obtained from regression calculations, and the future predicted value for each weather variable to predict future reproductive parameter values for lesser prairie-chickens. There was a high degree of model uncertainty for each reproductive value.

Winter temperature had the greatest effect size for all three parameters, suggesting a negative relationship between above-average winter temperature and reproductive output. The above-average winter temperatures are correlated to La Nina events, which negatively affect lesser prairie-chickens through resulting drought conditions. By and , nest survival was predicted to be below levels considered viable for population persistence; however, our assessment did not consider annual survival of adults, chick survival, or the positive benefit of habitat management and conservation, which may ultimately offset the potentially negative effect of drought on nest survival.

Iron deficiency anemia is thought to affect the health of more than one billion people worldwide, with the greatest burden of disease experienced in lesser developed countries, particularly women of reproductive age and children. This greater disease burden is due to both nutritional and infectious etiologies. Individuals in lesser developed countries have diets that are much lower in iron, less access to multivitamins for young children and pregnant women, and increased rates of fertility which increase demands for iron through the life course.

Infectious diseases, particularly parasitic diseases, also lead to both extracorporeal iron loss and anemia of inflammation, which decreases bioavailability of iron to host tissues. This paper will address the unique etiologies and consequences of both iron deficiency anemia and the alterations in iron absorption and distribution seen in the context of anemia of inflammation.

Implications for diagnosis and treatment in this unique context will also be discussed. Oxynoemacheilus zarzianus, new species, is described from the Lesser Zab River drainage, a tributary of the lower Tigris. It is distinguished from other Oxynoemacheilus species in the Tigris drainage by having a slightly emarginate caudal fin, no suborbital groove in males, a complete lateral line, the posterior process of the bony air-bladder capsule directed posteriorly, the flank and posterior part of back covered by scales, short barbels and a deep caudal peduncle.

It is the fourth Oxynoemacheilus species known from the Lesser Zab drainage, where such loaches seem to be highly isolated in headwaters.

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Oxynoemacheilus species diversity in the Euphrates and Tigris drainage is exceptional high. Today 22 species are known from the entire Euphrates and Tigris drainage and 15 from the Tigris drainage alone. The Intermittent Solar Ammonia Absorption Cycle ISAAC refrigerator is a solar thermal technology which provides low cost, efficient, reliable ice-making to areas without ready access to electricity. An ISAAC refrigeration system consists of a compound parabolic solar collector, two pressure vessels, a condenser, a cold box or refrigerated space, and simple connective piping -- no moving parts or electrical components.

Most parts are simple construction or plumbing grade materials, locally available in many remote areas. This technology has numerous potential benefits in lesser developed countries both by providing a cheap, reliable source of ice, and, since manufacture requires only semi-skilled labor, a source of employment to the local economy. Applications include vaccine storage for health care clinics; fish, meat, and dairy product storage; and personal consumption. Importantly, this technology increases the quality of life for people in lesser developed countries without depleting fossil fuel resources or increasing the release of greenhouse gases such as CO2 and chlorofluorocarbons.

Spatial differences in growth of lesser sandeel in the North Sea. Lesser sandeel, Ammodytes marinus, is a key prey to a variety of North Sea predators, including species such as single load seabirds which are highly sensitive to prey size and condition. Whilst differences in weight at age across the North Sea have been investigated previously, the scale and cause This study presents an analysis of spatial patterns in length and condition of the lesser sandeel in the North Sea and the relationship of these with physical and biological factors.

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  • Both mean length Hence, the value of sandeel as prey to single load predators varies considerably with values in central and northeastern North Sea being Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia is thought to affect the health of more than one billion people worldwide, with the greatest burden of disease experienced in lesser developed countries, particularly women of reproductive age and children. Abstract The lesser horseshoe bat Rhinolophus hipposideros was recorded for the first time from Syria in Two solitary hibernating specimens a male and a female were collected from an underground cave in Basofan village, NW of Aleppo, and from Al Marqab Citadel, Banyas.

    External and cranial measurements are given for both specimens. The list of recorded species of bats of Syria includes 17 species. Impacts of a volcanic eruption on the forest birdcommunity of Montserrat, Lesser Antilles. GRAY; L. Volcanic eruptions are an important and natural source of catastrophic disturbance to ecological communities. Delicious goodies await your taste Apple Pressers and Blacksmiths how the Pioneers of the day lived.

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